Wednesday, July 18, 2018

CAMEROON LINK PARTICIPATES IN ANTI-RETROVAL DISPENSATION WORKSHOP

By James Achanyi-Fontrm, Coordinator
Cameroon Link participated in the national workshop organised in Mbalmayo from the 9th to 13th July 2018 by the National Committee for dispensation of ARV drugs in the Health District od ABO. The workshop covered the following issues: STOCKS MANADEMENT, THÉRAPEUTIC ÉDUCATION , PSYCHO SOCIAL FOLLOW UP, DISPENSATION OF Anti-retroval DRUGS AND FILLING OF DATA BASEDOCUMENTS. This article presents the global look of the content of the training which covered the the Context, justification, the Objectives, Résults awaited and methodology of actions. The context and justification were: Dans le cadre de l’accélération de la thérapie antirétrovirale, le Cameroun a mis en place des PODIC (point de distribution communautaire) des ARV pour améliorer la rétention des PVVIH au traitement antirétroviral - 72 OBC sont en lien avec 54 FOSA sur les 77 retenues, un total de 283 acteurs formés dont 75% d’acteurs communautaires dans le cadre de la dispensation communautaire des ARV. - La file active orientée vers les OBC s’élève à 7 635 PvVIH sur 25 372 PvVIH attendus soit 3% de la file active nationale en fin décembre 2017. - Passage à échelle à travers le recrutement de 26 nouvelles OBC pour la période 2018-2020. A cet effet, il est prévu le renforcement des capacités des prestataires communautaires et des prestataires de santé dans le souci de faciliter la collaboration entre agents de santé des FOSA tutrices et acteurs communautaires OBJECTIVES Doter 56 membres et responsables de Groupes de Soutien/Association des PVVIH/OBC et FOSA des capacités nécessaires à la dispensation communautaire des ARV et au remplissage des registres et mettre en réseau les CTA/UPEC tuteurs avec les OBC formées. De manière spécifique: Renforcer les capacités des nouvelles OBC et FOSA sur les généralités du VIH ; Former les membres et responsables de groupes de soutien/Association des PVVIH/OBC en gestion de stocks, Renforcer les capacités des nouvelles OBC et FOSA à l’éducation thérapeutique, accompagnement psycho social, Causerie éducative, groupe de parole, soutien à l’observance; Former les nouvelles OBC sur la dispensation des ARV et le remplissage des outils. RESULTS AWAITED Au terme de la formation : les nouvelles OBC et FOSA sont formées sur les généralités du VIH ; Les membres et responsables de groupes de soutien/Association des PVVIH/OBC sont outillés en gestion de stocks, les capacités des nouvelles OBC et FOSA à l’éducation thérapeutique, accompagnement psycho social, Causerie éducative, groupe de parole, soutien à l’observance sont renforcés; les nouvelles OBC sont formées sur la dispensation des ARV et le remplissage des outils. METHODOLOGY Le manuel de formation sera distribué aux apprenants/membres et responsables de groupes de soutien/Association des PVVIH/OBC et pharmaciens des CTA/UPEC. Des présentations seront faites dans le but d’expliquer l’intérêt de la formation et le mécanisme de dispensation communautaire du TARV. Des exercices pratiques seront donnés aux apprenants pour mettre en application les stratégies reçues tant pour la dispensation que pour le remplissage du registre TARV.

Dispensation of anti-retroviral by Community Based Organisations

By James Achanyi-Fontem, camlink News
The first module of the training was on the generalities of HIV/AIDs and the concept of logistic. Paticipans defined what HIV means, the different types of drugs used to fight the virus and what a treatment protocole means. A video was projected to show how the virus affects the body and its consequencies. It was noted that the treatment with the anti-retroviral only reduces the effect of the virus in the body and does not eliminate it. It clears the viral load in the blood, especially when it is non-detectable. The anti-retroviral re-establishes and preserve the immunological functions, which is the CD4 in the blood stream. This helps to improve the well-being of the patient and reduces mortality.
The standard anti-retroviral protocol is the mono or bi-therapy tablets for treatment and these results to rapid recovery by increasing resistance to the multiplication of the effects of the virus in the body. The treatment is composed of the following: INTI + 1 INNTI : or any of the four combinations associated Zidovudine + Lamivudine+ Efavirenz Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Névirapine Ténofovir + Lamivudine + Efavirenz Ténofovir + Lamivudine + Névirapine The above drugs have principal side effects which need to be taken into consideration: ZIDOVUDINE (AZT) may lead to severe anemia Anémie, neutropénie, nausées, vomissements, myalgie, fatigue, insomnie, hyper pigmentation (ongles, langue), gynécomastie. In this case it is advised to contrôl NFS for research of the cause of anémia and/or neutropénie. LAMIVUDINE (3TC) may lead to Céphalées/insomnie, diarrhée, with some rare cases of neuropathie périphérique. In this case, toleration is generally recommended. Using TENOFOVIR (TDF) may lead to Diarrhées, nausées, flatulences, tubulopathie proximale, néphrotoxicité SD de Fanconi and it is advised to evalulate the patient ; renal function,,and adapte the posology with créatinine < 50ml/mn. NEVIRAPINE (NVP) will lead to rashes cutané that could evaluate towards a syndrome of Stevens-Johnson et Lyell. reactions very frequent in women with CD4 totaling >250 cell/mm3 and >400 cell/mm3 in men. With this, the following effects have been recorded and it is advised to always administer half the dose in the first six months. In case of effects, within 7 days,return patient to clinic of observation of CD4 count. Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaacd4 count is generally 250 for women and 400 for men. EFAVIRENZ (EFV) will show the following effects: T neuropsychiques roubles,dowsiness, insomnie, somnolence, hallucination, possible toxicity cutanée et hépatique. In this case, take medicine to reduce effects in pregnant women and patient suffering from antécédents psychiatriques and convulsions. When in difficulties, contact your care-giver and doctor.

Monday, January 15, 2018

Réunions de Coordination et validation de données des ISDC ASC d’ABO

12 – 18 Decembre, 2017 Par James Achanyi-Fontem, Coordinateur, ISDC ABO MBONJO
Point abordés pendant la réunion L’an 2017 du 12 décembre se tenue a Mbonjo dans le district de sante d’ABO une réunion de coordination trimestrielle de la Task Force communautaire sur les ISDC . C’est a 08h30 que le CBS représentant du Chef de district d’ABOouvre la séance avec le mot du bienvenue. Il demande aux participants composes des ASC, CAS, Representant de la chefferie de Mbonjo a suivre la lecture des Termes de référence de la réunion, les modalités pratiques, l’objectif générale de la réunion de la taskforce. Le Task Force vise d’assure la bonne coordination et le suivi, de la mise en œuvre des ISDC de manière harmonisé et complète au niveau communautaire en vue de l’amélioration locale de l’efficacité et la qualité des interventions sous directives communautaire. L’objectif, spécifique était mise en jeu pour guide les participants sur les attentes. Les données doivent être collectes a juste titre et que le chef de l’aire a continu avec la lecture des objectifs de la séance. Nous avons discuté sur les points phare de la réunion. Toul au file de cette seance, nous avons discute sur le problème que rencontre les ASC et mémé le chef de l’aire au quotidien. Le problème de gestion des médicament se pose avant validation des rapports des ASC. Le Coordonateur de l’OSCD Cameroon Link a presente les différent stratégies misent en place pour ameliorer les performances des ASC et CAS avec l’appui du Chef de village. Le travaille dans l’aire de sante de Mbonjo doit etre améliorer, il a ajout p-our un mieux resultat.. C’est a 17 heurs que le CBS a cloture la séance apres la validation des donnees des ASC.ferme la secoue pour tous en remerciant les participants. Aire de Santé Mangamba
Rapport de la réunion de coordination de task force pour la validation des données des ASC. -Présentation du terme de Référence de la réunion -Présentation des nouvelles orientations -Présentation des problèmes rencontrés -Suggestion des solutions pour l’amélioration des performances -Validation des rapports des ASC de Mangamba Mot de clôture et photo de famille La réunion débute a 08h30 avec le mot de bienvenue du coordination/superviseur du projet a ABO. L’ouverture est suivie de la présentation générale des orientations de l’ISDC pour 2018 avec la participation des chef de villagesa. Il ya eu lecture des termes de référence et correspondance sur la motivation envoyé par le comptable du Project. Le réunion de coordination régional est annoncé pour le 21 et 22 Decembre. 2017 a la delegation de sante publique pour le littoral a Douala-Bonandjo. Dans la liste des problèmes evoques se trouve le non- respect des dates de dépôt de rapports, le faibles quantité des intraits, le manque des certaines génériques de médicaments solliciter dans les communautés. Les participants ont apprécies la motivation des chefs des aire et inclusion des chefs de village comme membre du Task Force de ISDC. Ils vont facilité le plaidoyer dans les communautés.Les membres ont sollicites que le transport soit paye pour l’achement des intrants du District a l’aire de Sante. Réunion de Coordination du Task Force de SOUZA
Présentation des nouveaux ASC -Remplissage des fiches de présences -Nouvelles orientation sur les actiivites de ISDC -présentation des problèmes de l’Aire des Sante de Souza -Recherche des Solutions Validation des raqpports et revue de la carttographie des ACS Suggestion sur l’implication de Mme Bodi Michelle qui gere les medicaments. Le Task Force suggere qu’elle soit appui avec le frais de transport pour la collecte des medicament au niveau de la delegation de la sante a Douala. La quantite doit etre revue en hause. Conclusion La réunion débute a 8h avec le mot de bienvenu du Coordinateur d’OSCD Cameroon Link, M. James Achanyi Fontem, suivie de la présentation général des ASC et en particulier les nouveaux ASC qui sont venur a la Grant famille d’ISDC D’ABO..P_resentation des participants, nouveaux et anciens et a la suite de cette présentation le coordinateur nous présent les nouvelles orientation qui implique les chefs de village dans le programme .ainsi que le nouveau registre comme un autre outil de travail. On afini par la validation des rapporst des ASC pour les mois d’Octobre Novembre 2017., La vérification des zones de couverture par les ASC etaqient revuers avec satisfaction de participants. Comme problème évoqué, il y a manque de certain générique sollicité par les populations,l’insuffisance des quantité distribues, et le problème de transport par la gestionnaire des medcaments dans le district de sante d’ABO pour renouveler le stock. La personne qui achemine les médicaments de Douala a l’aire de sante sollicte une motivation pour le transp[ort. Comme solution l a été trace la cartographie des zones de couverture des ASC, les recensements des matériaux de projet à collecter par les nouveaux ASC, la signatures de contractés de nouveaux ASC du programme en fin d’ ânnée 2017. Il y a eu echange pendant la session des questions/ reponses avant la validation de rapports par le cTask Force. La reunion a pris fin a 16h 30min suivie d’une photo de famille.

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Cameroon Gets First Enterprise Breastfeeding Room

By James Achanyi-Fontem, camlinknews Email:camlink99@gmail.com
The Administrator General of Nestle for Central Africa region, Thomas CASO, on the 16th June 2017 inaugurated the first enterprise breastfeeding room in Cameroon. The official ceremony was attended by the Littoral Regional Delegate for Public Health, Dr.YAMBA BEYAS Martin, his colleague of the delegation of women and the family, directors of the company and a host of other dignitaries. According to information gathered during the ceremony, Nestle has inaugurated over 400 breastfeeding rooms around the world and the one in Cameroon is the fourth in the Central and West Africa Region. Thomas CASO told the audience that since the invention of baby food in 1866 by Henri Nestle, the enterprise has never failed in its mission of regularly improving on the wellbeing, quality of life and contribution for a better future of populations around the world. He added that the company has an ambition of contributing to the lives of individuals and families through the promotion and protection of breastfeeding by encouraging good nutrition of babies during the first 1000 days. It is for this reason that the company started the initiative of creating enterprise breastfeeding rooms for its employees, as an employer that is favourable to the family by creating an environment for breastfeeding mothers in its enterprise. This initiative falls within the company’s parental policy which aims at supporting employees to offer optimal nutrition opportunities to their babies during the first 1000 days. This also reaffirms its support to WHO/UNICEF recommendation for promotion of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for all babies before the introduction of complimentary foods and continuing breastfeeding up to 24 months.
The second speaker at the occasion was was the president of Cameroon Mid-wives Association, who lauded the initiative and called on other enterprises to copy the good example. This initiative is not only life-saving, but also cost-effective as an opportunity for alleviation of poverty because breastfeeding has no cost attached to it. Breastmilk is ready at any time for the baby and it should be given on demand.
The littoral regional delegate for women and the family in Cameroon added her voice, saying Nestle BF Rom Initiative is supported by the government. It was made known that since 2013 when the Cameroon Society of paediatricians put exclusive breastfeeding rate in Cameroon at 28%, more progress has been made as the World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative conducted in Cameroon in December 2016 puts the rate at 34%. These indicators show that Cameroon is making laudable progress in the area of infant and young child feeding promotion.
The occasion was animated with traditional rhythm and poem delivered in the Douala national language of Cameroon. This demonstrates the fact that local populations are better reached through the languages that they understand better.

Frist1000 Day of Baby

By James Achanyi-Fontem Email:camlink99@gmail.com Courtesy of Nutrition Institute of Africa
The Administrator General of Nestle for Central Africa region, Thomas CASO, on the 16th June 2017 inaugurated the first enterprise breastfeeding room in Cameroon. The official ceremony was attended by the Littoral Regional Delegate for Public Health, Dr.YAMBA BEYAS Martin, his colleague of the delegation of women and the family, directors of the company and a host of other dignitaries. According to information gathered during the ceremony, Nestle has inaugurated over 400 breastfeeding rooms around the world and the one in Cameroon is the fourth in the Central and West Africa Region. The first 1000 days was central point of discussion at the event and Cameroon Link uses this opportunity to highlight what 1000 Days is all about. First 1000 days explains the beginning of baby's birth and growth from the mother's womb up to 24 months of life. This issue was treated during the inauguration of the first breastfeeding room in Cameroon on the 16th June 2017 by the Administrator General of Nestle Central Africa Region, Thomas CASO. Companies are invited to copy Nestlé’s example. Nestle has 400 breastfeeding rooms in enterprise around the world. Click this link to watch video - https://youtu.be/xHHzaQfIF4w President of Cameroon Mid-wives Association praises Nestle Initiatives The President of Cameroon Mid-wives Association has praised Nestle Initiative of creating first enterprise breastfeeding room. He called on other enterprises to copy the good example and improve on the wellbeing of employees and their families. According to information gathered during the ceremony, Nestle has inaugurated over 400 breastfeeding rooms around the world and this was the fourth in the Central and West Africa Region. This initiative falls within the company’s parental policy which aims at supporting employees to offer optimal nutrition opportunities to their babies during the first 1000 days. This also reaffirms its support to WHO/UNICEF recommendation for promotion of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for all babies before the introduction of complimentary foods up to 24 months. Cameroon is the fourth country to benefit from the initiative in West and Central Africa Region. Click the following videos to watch more - https://youtu.be/nEls7irXjMc https://youtu.be/sT9Vs8Otv-s
What can you do in 1,000 Days? https://youtu.be/4TBiikPprzM First 1000 days explains the beginning of baby's birth and growth from the mother's womb up to 24 months of life. This issue was treated during the inauguration of the first breastfeeding room in Cameroon on the 16th June 2017. Companies are invited to copy Nestle's example. Nestle has 400 breastfeeding rooms in enterprise around the world. The 1,000 Days Window of Opportunity First 1000 days explains the beginning of baby's birth and growth from the mother's womb up to 24 months of life. This issue was treated during the inauguration of the first breastfeeding room in Cameroon on the 16th June 2017. Companies are invited to copy Nestlé’s example. Nestle has 400 breastfeeding rooms in enterprise around the world. Click on this link to watch more - https://youtu.be/ugBd7NAOzg4 Building baby diet during pregnancy – Part 1 This episode treats the issue on how to build a baby's diet during pregnancy. The film is produced by the Wellcome Trust and shared here by Cameroon Link, a partner of WABA and IBFAN Africa. Click on this link to watch more - https://youtu.be/VB5L1gILMOc Building baby diet during pregnancy – Part 2 This episode treats the issue on how to build a baby's diet during pregnancy. The film is produced by the Wellcome Trust and shared here by Cameroon Link, a partner of WABA and IBFAN Africa. Click on this link to watch more - https://youtu.be/YIpSV27LKNc Pregnancy Diet For Mom This is the message to pass on to expectant mothers during counselling ahead of delivery of her baby. It has been brought to you by Cameroon Link and the Mother and Child Health Care Association in Grand Hangar, Douala-Bonaberi. Share it with your friends and relatives. Click on this link to watch more -https://youtu.be/tik6xkqf3IE What foods to eat while pregnant Diet nutrition during pregnancy This is the message to pass on to expectant mothers during counselling ahead of delivery of her baby. It has been brought to you by Cameroon Link and the Mother and Child Health Care Association in Grand Hangar, Douala-Bonaberi. Share this link with your friends and relatives. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62bAknJ1vxQ&feature=youtu.be Weight Gain during Pregnancy - Part 1 Pregnant women gain a lot of weight during pregnancy. This should be controlled before and after bedding of the baby. It is easier to gain weight than to cut down when the weight is already there. Listen to this episode and share with friends and relatives. https://youtu.be/dBTz0HhbKJw The BNP Breastfeeding Video Documentary - Part 2 Pregnant women gain a lot of weight during pregnancy. This should be controlled before and after bedding of the baby. It is easier to gain weight than to cut down when the weight is already there. Listen to this episode and share with friends and relatives. Watch this video brought to you by Cameroon Link - https://youtu.be/ldMyUa8S36g
Prenatal and Postnatal Infant Care and Feeding Educational Video This is a prenatal and postnatal Infant Care and Feeding Educational Video brought to you by Cameroon Link for sharing with friends and relatives- https://youtu.be/7Kbj86o3WMo Hillary Clinton Addresses Participants at 1,000 Days to Scale Up Nutrition for Mothers and Children This episode is on the message given by Hillary Clinton as she addressed participants at 1,000 Days to Scale Up Nutrition for Mothers and Child. Cameroon Link and Mother and Child Health Association in Douala-Bonaberi are also engaged in similar activities weekly. it is another way of promoting wellbeing in families. Watch Hilary Clinton and share with friends and relatives - https://youtu.be/AEgaEW4n4B0 Secretary of State Clinton on 1,000 Days This is a video about the Former US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton addressing Americans on the 1000 Days. Cameroon Link has brought this to you for sharing... https://youtu.be/I19Fm_S9_1M

FACTORS INFLUENCING PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN IYCF

By James Achanyi-Fontem, Email:camlink99@gmail.com, Courtesy of Nutrition Institute of Africa
Different theories on behaviour are useful in predicting or explaining behaviours. The Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological system’s model and the Theory of planned behaviour have often been used to explain human behaviour. In order to understand human behaviour, there is need to understand the context in which the behaviour occurs, and the intertwined relationship between an individual and their surrounding environment. (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler & Glanz, 1988; Stokols, 1996). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological systems model defines spheres of influence from individual factors to society and environment, affecting health behaviour (Bronfenbrenner & Uriel, 1994). Although in the model different levels are separate in order to illustrate how they individually contribute to every behaviour, the levels overlap and influence each other. Figure 1 provides a graphical representation of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological systems model as applied to parental involvement in IYCF. The four categories of levels emerging from this model are the macro system, exo system, micro system and the individual level. The microsystem includes interactions experienced by the individual in this case the parents with friends, grandmothers and other relations that have an influence of the involvement of parents in child feeding. The exo system includes the influence of the health systems, the media and finances, while the macro system includes the environment in which the parents live in, policies and the culture that the parents follow. Some of the factors that influence parental involvement in IYFC based on the ecological model will be discussed. These factors include the parent’s knowledge and attitudes, their education status, age, economic status and other cultural norms.
Parental knowledge and attitudes in infant and young child feeding According to the Theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1985; Ajzen, 1991), antecedents of intention and actual behaviour are subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and attitudes towards that behaviour, which in turn are based on underlying beliefs on advantages and disadvantages of the behaviour. Identifying the parent’s attitudes and their beliefs could help to improve IYCF practices. The Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour model by Kemm & Close (1995) adds that knowledge affects ones attitudes which leads to change of behaviour. Behavioural intention is a direct predictor of behaviour while one’s attitude to the behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behaviour control are predictors of intention. However, attitude can also directly influence behaviour. Knowledge affects the attitudes and perceived behaviour control (Vaarno, 2016).
Parental knowledge of infant and young child feeding practices The knowledge that parents and caregivers have on the recommended IYCF practices had an influence on their feeding practices (behaviour). As such, improving parental knowledge on appropriate IYCF practices may have a beneficial effect on the actual feeding practices. In some studies, prenatally given breastfeeding information for mothers has been positively associated with breastfeeding confidence (Chezem, Friesen & Boettcher, 2003; Kronborg, Maimburg & Væth, 2012), initiation of breastfeeding (Stuebe & Bonuck, 2011), and breastfeeding duration (Chezem et al., 2003). Women’s knowledge and self-efficacy on breastfeeding have also been associated with high breastfeeding rates (Khoury, Mitra, Hinton, Carothers & Sheil, 2002). Maternal knowledge appears to have a beneficial influence to initiation of complementary foods (Semahegn, Tesfaye & Bogale, 2014) and quality of complementary foods (Fahmida, Kolopaking, Santika, Sriani, Umar, Htet & Ferguson, 2015; Negash, Belachew, Henry, Kebebu, Abegaz & Whiting, 2014). However, it has been observed that mothers have higher levels of knowledge about the recommendations related to breastfeeding in comparison to their knowledge of complementary feeding (Thuita, 2011). Fathers have an important role of supporting mothers in IYCF (Tohotoa, Maycock, Hauck, Howat, Burns & Binns, 2009), and their knowledge about breastfeeding has been identified as one of the main attributes related to their support to breastfeeding (Sherriff, Hall & Panton, 2014). However, it has been observed that fathers’ knowledge of and involvement in maternal and child nutrition and health issues is limited compared to that of mothers (Aubel, 2012). This could be because the fathers are not extensively involved in child feeding and therefore they do not accumulate significant knowledge. Wolfberg et al. (1994) in the United States of America found that breastfeeding initiation was significantly increased when expectant fathers attended a two hour antenatal class of infant care and breastfeeding compared to only one class covering infant care. The father’s perception of the IYCF practices have also been linked to mother’s breastfeeding decisions. It has been observed that in families where the fathers perceived breastfeeding as a good practice, mothers were more likely to initiate breastfeeding than families where fathers did not favour breastfeeding (Arora, McJunkin, Wehrer & Kuhn, 2000; Freed & Fraley, 1993; Giugliani, Caiaffa, Vogelhut, Witter & Perman, 1994). Other studies suggest that since fathers often have misperceptions of and limited knowledge on IYCF, they would benefit from interventions to enhance their knowledge (Brown & Davies, 2014; Sherriff et al., 2014; Taşpınar, Çoban, Küçük & Şirin, 2013). Providing education to fathers has been found to influence the actual feeding practices. For instance, in Brazil it was observed that fathers’ better knowledge increased changes of infant being exclusively breastfed at the end of first and third month (Susin, Giugliani, Kummer, Maciel, Simon & Da Silveira, 1999). Similar benefits of paternal education were also reported in a Turkish study (Özlüses & Çelebioglu, 2014). The beliefs and attitudes that parents have toward breastfeeding and complementary feeding also have an influence on the actual feeding practices. It is even suggested in other studies that attitudes may be even better predictors of feeding intention and behaviour than knowledge (Losch, Dungy, Russell & Dusdieker, 1995; Marrone, Vogeltanz-Holm & Holm, 2008).
Attitudes and beliefs Benefits of breastfeeding seem to be well known, but positive attitudes towards breastfeeding are needed for successful outcomes in infant feeding. Positive attitudes towards breastfeeding have been associated with the intention to breastfeed, longer duration of both exclusive and any breastfeeding (Mitchell-Box, Braun, Hurwitz & Hayes, 2013), and the introduction of complementary foods (Newby, Brodribb, Ware & Davies, 2014). In a study by Mossman et al. (2008) on mothers’ breastfeeding attitudes on breastfeeding initiation and duration it was found that mothers with high prenatal attitude on breastfeeding were significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding than those with poor attitudes. In addition, adolescent mothers who had more positive attitudes toward breastfeeding also had higher prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy scores (Mossman, Heaman, Dennis & Morris, 2008). This was also observed in an Australian study, where mothers who did not initiate breastfeeding had significantly lower levels of breastfeeding confidence than those who initiated breastfeeding and continued to six months postpartum (Turner & Papinczak, 2000). In another study, women with lower breastfeeding confidence were three times more likely to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding when compared to more confident women (O'Campo, Faden, Gielen & Wang, 1992). In addition to the mother’s attitudes, father’s attitudes on IYCF also have an influence on the feeding practices. Rempel and Rempel (2011) found that fathers’ prenatal beliefs influenced the strength of mothers’ breastfeeding intention and predicted breastfeeding behaviour even over and above the mothers’ intention. In a study by Giugliani et al. (1994) mothers’ perception of fathers’ attitudes was the main reason associated with breastfeeding shortly after birth. It has been observed that mothers who perceived their partner having negative attitudes regarding breastfeeding planned to formula-feed (Freed & Fraley, 1993; Freed, Fraley & Schanler, 1993; Shaker, Scott & Reid, 2004) and choose formula-feeding as the feeding method (Arora et al.,2000; Wolfberg, Michels, Shields, O'Campo, Bronner & Bienstock, 2004). Other studies in both high- and low-income settings have also observed that a father’s positive beliefs and knowledge about breastfeeding are associated with increased maternal intentions to breastfeed as well as successful breastfeeding initiation and increased breastfeeding duration (Anon.; Kessler, Gielen, Diener-West & Paige, 1995; Pontes, Osório & Alexandrino, 2009; Rempel & Rempel, 2004). However, not all the studies have found positive attitudes to be associated with initiation of breastfeeding (Holbrook et al., 2013) or exclusive breastfeeding duration (Yu et al., 2015). Negative attitudes are also associated with child feeding, more specifically negative attitudes towards breastfeeding in public have been found to be associated with earlier discontinuation of breastfeeding in many European countries (Scott et al., 2015).
Education Education is one of the factors that have an influence on parental involvement in IYCF. Studies have shown that younger parents and caregivers with high levels of education have a better understanding of the importance of child feeding and therefore are more likely to be involved in IYCF than parents with low levels of education (Hasnain, Majrooh & Anjum, 2013; Katepa-Bwalya et al., 2015). This is also evidenced from the results of a study conducted in Zambia that observed that mothers’ compliance with recommended IYCF practices increased with the mothers’ level of education. In the Zambian study, 48% of children whose mothers attended secondary school were fed according to the recommended IYCF practices, compared with 32% of children whose mothers had no education (Katepa-Bwalya et al., 2015). Other studies done in Malawi also found that education improved adherence to IYCF recommendations and reduced childhood morbidity (Vaahtera et al., 2001; Ziyane, 1999). High mother’s education has been related most clearly with positive feeding behaviours. In a Finnish nationwide survey where mother’s level of education was linked to both exclusive breastfeeding and total breastfeeding, it was found that 42 % of mothers with a high education were exclusively breastfeeding at four months and 88% were breastfeeding at six months, whereas among mothers with the lowest education level only 18% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding at four months, and 33% were breastfeeding at six months respectively (Uusitalo et al., 2012). The father’s level of education also has an influence in IYCF. Results from a study in Nepal found that fathers/ males who had higher levels of education showed greater involvement in encouraging their spouses to breastfeed their children (Bhatta, 2013). Another study in Equatorial Guinea had similar findings where younger married men with secondary education were significantly more willing to encourage their wives to exclusively breastfeed than older men with little education (Jimoh, 2004). For complementary feeding, a low maternal educational level has been related to early introduction of solid foods (Andren Aronsson et al., 2013& Betoko et al., 2013), delayed (beyond six months) introduction of complementary foods (Senarath et al. 2012) and a low quality of complementary foods (Betoko et al., 2013).
Age The age of the parents also has an influence on how they are involved in IYCF. For breastfeeding, older mothers have been observed to have more positive attitudes and to initiate and maintain breastfeeding longer than younger mothers (Mossman et al., 2008). Other studies also found maternal age as being positively associated with appropriate timing and quality of complementary foods (Andren Aronsson et al., 2013& Betoko et al., 2013). The father’s age has also been observed to have an influence on feeding practices. A study by Huus et al. (2008) found that short term (< 4 months) exclusive breastfeeding was less common if the father was more than 37 years old than when the father was younger. Economic status
The parents’ economic status also has an influence on their involvement in IYCF. Traditionally financial provision is considered to be one of the primary contributions of fathers (Kenney, 2008). This may lead to poor involvement from low income fathers since they may not have a lot of money to provide for the child’s feeding needs (Gavin, Black, Minor, Abel, Papas, & Bentley, 2002). On the other hand, fathers who provide steady household income for their families may feel that their most important role has been fulfilled through their work (Raub, 2013) and this may discourage them from being more directly involved. Even though recommended IYCF practices, especially breastfeeding, are generally cost saving, it has been observed that infants in low socio-economic families breastfeed for shorter periods and introduce solid foods earlier than infants in families having better socioeconomic status (Lauer et al., 2004; Mukuria et al., 2012). A qualitative study that was conducted in Kenya found that a mother’s food insecurity and hunger led to her experiencing milk insufficiency and anxiety about infant hunger. The mothers’ had the perception that their intake of food was not sufficient for successful breastfeeding which resulted in the mothers introducing solid food before the child was six months (Webb-Girard et al., 2012). Economic status may also influence the quality of foods provided for the children. A study in four South Asian countries found that the prevalence of children having a diversified diet (receiving foods from four or more food groups) was the lowest in the poorest families (Senarath et al., 2012). Foods that contain plenty of protein and micronutrients are typically expensive, which makes low income families unable to purchase them for their children (Darmon & Drewnowski, 2015). Parents may also have knowledge on the foods needed for complementary feeding, but may fail to practise when they do not have adequate financial resources to purchase the appropriate food (FAO, 2015).
Cultural norms Culture determines the parents’ involvement in the feeding of infant and young children. Cultural norms dictate that the roles of younger women and men are gender specific, as are the roles played by senior women (grandmothers) and senior men (grandfathers). Male family members are primarily responsible for providing the financial resources for basic household activities, including food while women are responsible for managing the household and managing the daily tasks of raising children which includes dealing with nutrition and health issues (Aubel, 2012). This division of roles may sometimes hinder men to be directly involved in IYCF. A study in Kenya observed that the pressure to embrace this cultural definition of masculinity hindered most men in actively participating in child care (Thuita, 2011). Culture can positively influence parental involvement in IYCF practices when the cultural patterns are supportive of the appropriate feeding practices. For example in rural Thailand, breastfeeding on demand, strong family support, and traditional practices that encouraged close contact between mother and her new born enabled mothers to breastfeed even when they had no previous experience (Amatayakul, Wongsawasdi, Mangklabruks, Tansuhaj, Ruckphaopunt, Chiowanich, Woolridge, Drewett & Baum, 1999). However, cultural practices can sometimes negatively influence parental involvement in IYCF. In Malawi some cultural norms and beliefs in relation to taboos were found to negatively influence IYCF practices. For example, eggs were perceived to be harmful for young children, while herbal tonics and thin porridges were believed to offer protective qualities (FAO, 2014; Vaahtera et al., 2001). In other Sub-Saharan African countries mothers are not allowed to be involved in sexual activities during the breastfeeding period because of the belief that intercourse would spoil the breast milk (Arts, Geelhoed, De Schacht, Prosser, Alons & Pedro, 2010; Mbekenga, Lugina, Christensson & Olsson, 2011). Such a taboo may increase pressure on mothers to terminate breastfeeding earlier than they would otherwise do. In some cultures, breastfeeding in public is considered a taboo due to exposing of breasts and this may hinder women from exclusively breastfeeding their children. For instance, a study in Malaysia found that women had positive attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding and were willing to practise exclusive breastfeeding, however breastfeeding in public was considered a taboo, which resulted in most mothers being unable to exclusively breastfeed (Leong, 2009).
Conclusion Both mothers and fathers play important roles in the feeding of infants and young children. As such involving both parents (mother and fathers) in IYCF is important to ensure optimal IYCF practices. Adequate nutrition knowledge, positive attitudes and perceptions of parents on IYCF are also important in improving their IYCF practices. There are several factors that influence the parents’ involvement in IYCF, including the parents’ level of education, age, and spouse perceptions of the appropriate IYCF practices as well as socio-economic and cultural factors.

Monday, May 29, 2017

Yes to breastfeeding rights, No to all violence!

By Camlinknews Courtesy of WABA
“Breastfeeding is a key element in cultivating concern and respect for each other and the world we share”. Did you know that obstetric violence can also negatively affect breastfeeding practices? Current socio-medical practices often deny women their rights to proper antenatal care, labour and delivery practices, and standard postpartum care, which results in low breastfeeding rates. Pregnancy, giving birth, and breastfeeding are all part of the sexual and reproductive cycle and thus integral to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR). In recognising the importance of SRHR on the International Day of Action for Women’s Health, the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and La Leche League International (LLLI) hope to engage change-makers at all levels to call for a global action to improve the rights of women and children by acknowledging breastfeeding to be fundamental in attaining the highest standards of health for mothers and children.
Breastfeeding is a key intervention that has the potential to improve survival, health, and well-being of the population both in the short and long term. Therefore, women need to be given the information and support to breastfeed successfully to enable them to make informed choices and act upon them. Information on the benefits of breastfeeding, as well as the risks of artificial feeding, should be made available to women and their families so that they can make the best possible choices. Unnecessary separation of mother and baby, and medical procedures (such as drugs taken during delivery that impede breastfeeding) should be avoided. Clinical and community breastfeeding resources for support and problem-solving should be made available to all new mothers. The White Ribbon Alliance states that Respectful Maternity Care also leads to successful breastfeeding. The respect and dignity afforded to a woman during pregnancy and childbirth is critical in ensuring that she feels supported during the first hours and days after giving birth when, the breastfeeding relationship is being established. When a woman gives birth in a respectful, supportive environment, where her rights are protected and her dignity is preserved, she is empowered to take care of her baby and breastfeed(1). Consistent support and skilled assistance for the mother-baby dyad throughout the continuum of care empower women to have a more satisfying and effective breastfeeding experience(2). The support should be present both within healthcare systems and in the communities. Today’s global economic and labour conditions are changing rapidly, and have led to improvements in women’s participation in the economy. However, the benefits of paid labour do not reach all women and families equally. If women are to breastfeed as recommended, society bears the responsibility to support them. Specifically, this social responsibility means that protection, respect, facilitation, and fulfilment of these rights require universal recognition of the importance of breastfeeding as a social function. This will be achieved by extending access to paid maternity and parental leave, paid breastfeeding breaks, and family-friendly work environments. Breastfeeding is enhanced by having consistent support from the baby’s father or the partner. Research shows that fathers not only have the capacity for care-giving, but that children also benefit directly from fathers’ involvement. Promundo’s MenCare campaign report states that involved and non-violent fatherhood allows girls and women to achieve their full potential and also makes men and families happier and healthier(3). By creating opportunities for equitable sharing of parental and domestic responsibilities, new pathways emerge for building gender equality at home, workplace, and society at large.
On this International Day of Action for Women’s Health, we call upon all conscientious citizens to work together to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding. Collaboration toward this critically important goal will help ensure women’s sexual and reproductive health right to control their bodies, their sexualities, and their lives, free from coercion, discrimination and violence(4). http://whiteribbonalliance.org/opinions/respectful-maternity-care-can-lead-to-successful-breastfeeding/ http://waba.org.my/warm-chain/ https://sowf.men-care.org/ http://www.may28.org/