Friday, November 23, 2018

Community Investigators on Health Care Delivery Holds in Bonaberi

By James Achanyi Fontem, camlinknews

The Health District of Bonassama was the focus of a two-day workshop on the investigation of the level of quality health care within the different health areas of the district. The workshop took place on November 16 and 17, 2018 grouping some 72 participants chosen from 18 Local Community Associations. The training was facilitated by Nkeng Eric and Ngouh Emannuel from the Agency for Contractualisation and Verification (ACV) The agency is involved in financing based on performance. The participants were later sent to the different health areas to conduct a survey and meet patients selected who hasd received treatment in the health facilities who signed contracts with the Agency of Contractualisation and Verification (ACV°. The contracts signed were financing based on performance. The ministry of public health encourages proximity health at low cost and these facilities are paid motivation allowances every three months after a survey. The activity is coordinated by the Regional Fund for the Promotion of Health. During the investigation, the local associations verify the data produced by the health facilities through comparative analysis of the declarations made by the patients treated. The level of satisfaction of the health care delivered to the patient from the bebnficiary populations is compared with the policy for health care put in place by the Cameroon government. This aims at getting the community to appropriate the services received as a means of encouraging quality and quantitative health care for all. Addressing the issue of the project site and target groups, the facilitator Nkeng said the activity is conducted quarterly in 16 Health Districts of Littoral region, notably: Cite des Palmiers, Bangue, Edea, Loum, Njombe-Penja, Yabassi, Nylon, Deido, Nkongsamba, Mbanga, Manjo, Boko, Bonassama, Japom, Logbaba and New Bell.
The target group zre payients declared to have been received in health facilities in the above districts. During a period of three months. Following the community investigation by the Agency for Financing based on performance ‘ACV) The task of the investigator resides on visiting the homes of patients declared to have been trearted in the health facilities. The result is to find out whether the patient really exists and received treatment as declared by the health facilities. THE INVESTIGATION IS CARRIED OUT WITH A QUESTIONNAIRE INDICATING THE FACILITY visited, the period, the reason for the visit, health test test done in the facility and whether the staff was welcoming. The time spent in the health facility, the drugs available and the cost of health care are registered. For reasons of transparency the patient indicates who received payment for the care in the facility. The patient closes the questionnaire by expressing his opinion on areas that need to be improved. PARTICIPANTS WERE DURING THE TRAINING GUIDED ON THE TECHNIQUE CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS? TH QUALITIES OF A GOOD INVESTIGATOR? WHICH INCLUDE SOCIALIBILTY;

Sunday, November 18, 2018

30ème journée mondiale contre le Sida

Par camlinknews
30ème journée mondiale contre le Sida; déjà 16 ans que Synergies Africaines mène le combat Novembre est le mois camerounais contre le Sida : l’appui de Synergies Africaines aux associations et établissements scolaires a été au centre des évènements du mois. SYNERGIES AFRICAINES a offert du matériel de sensibilisation à une centaine d’associations et établissements scolaires au cours d’une cérémonie présidée par M. Jean Stéphane BIATCHA, Secrétaire Exécutif de l’ONG Panafricaine, le mercredi 14 novembre 2018. Cette cérémonie s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une série d’activités que SYNERGIES AFRICAINES organise dans le cadre de la 3ème édition du Mois Camerounais contre le Sida.

Sunday, November 11, 2018

Proven Benefits and Uses of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) – Science Based

By Jenny Hills, Nutritionist and Medical Writer
Tea tree oil has been used for centuries due to its amazing medicinal and therapeutic properties. The antimicrobial compounds in tea tree oil have many uses and benefits. You can use tea tree oil to cure fungal infections, help cuts to heal quickly, get rid of dandruff, and treat nail infections. To use tea tree oil on your skin, scalp, or feet, you can add it to a carrier oil and apply to your body. On small areas of skin, tea tree oil can be used as a spot treatment on acne pimples or to disinfect small cuts. You can even add a few drops of tea tree oil to your shampoo if you want to use tea tree oil to soothe an itchy scalp. In this article, you will learn about the many uses of tea tree oil and why it is one of the best antimicrobial essential oils you can use. At the end of the article, you can find out about precautions to take when using tea tree oil for medicinal purposes. What is Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) and Where It Comes From Tea tree oil (also called “melaleuca oil”) comes from extracting oil from the leaves of the tree Melaleuca alternifolia that grows in Australia. The tea tree plant looks like a tall shrub but can grow into a moderate sized tree. The journal Clinical Microbiology Reviews reports that tea tree oil contains a number of medicinal compounds. The most prominent antimicrobial compound in tea tree oil is terpinen-4-ol. To use tea tree oil for its therapeutic benefits, tea tree oil should contain at least 30% terpinen-4-ol. (1) According to research published in 2018, recent scientific studies have confirmed many of the medicinal uses and benefits of tea tree oil. Research has shown that tea tree oil can be used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant properties. (2) Some scientists have found that tea tree oil is even powerful enough to be effective against many drug-resistant strains of fungi and bacteria. (1, 3) What is Tea Tree Oil Good For? The powerful healing compounds of tea tree oil mean that it is useful in addressing a number of health concerns. As well as containing terpinen-4-ol, researchers have identified a number of other beneficial chemicals in tea tree oil. These include 1,8 cineole, limonene, linalool, and terpineol. How can you use tea tree oil to treat many ailments? Because tea tree oil is antifungal and antibacterial (4), tea tree oil is good for treating acne pimples, nail fungus, itchy skin, and dandruff. Tea tree oil is also an effective antiseptic solution that has uses and benefits for treating cuts, healing wounds, and reducing skin inflammation. You can also add tea tree oil to natural anti-deodorants to prevent underarm odor. The Benefits of Using Tea Tree Oil Let’s look in more detail about the many benefits and uses of tea tree oil if you want to help keep your skin free from germs, bacteria, and microbes. Tea Tree Oil Is Good for Fighting Acne You can use tea tree oil to eliminate blackheads, inflamed pimples, and bacteria from skin that can cause acne. A scientific study on the uses of tea tree oil found that 5% tea tree oil cream was just as effective as benzoyl peroxide in reducing the number of acne pimples. The benefit of using tea tree oil was that there were fewer side effects. (5) Benzoyl peroxide is a pharmaceutical cream used in the treatment of acne but can cause itching, burning, or swelling. (6) Research from Australia in 2017 found that tea tree oil gel and tea tree oil face wash can be used to treat mild to moderate acne. Over a 12-week period, the anti-acne tea tree oil remedies helped to reduce the number of lesions. (7) How to use tea tree oil for acne: To make a natural facial cleanser with tea tree oil, mix 1 part tea tree oil to 9 parts water. Shake well and with a cotton ball, apply the tea tree oil solution to your acne-prone skin. Leave for 15 minutes before rinsing off. Another option is to dilute 3-4 drops of tea tree oil in a tablespoon of carrier oil of your choice and apply to the affected skin. If you have just one or two pimples on your face, you can apply undiluted tea tree oil to the spot using a cotton swab. Find out more information and suggestions on how to use tea tree oil for treating acne outbreaks and how to use it in homemade acne face masks. Tea Tree Oil Helps to Disinfect Cuts and Grazes The antiseptic compounds in melaleuca oil mean that tea tree oil can be used to remove germs from minor skin wounds. A 2017 review of essential oils that promote skin health found that terpinen-4-ol in tea tree oil can be used as an antiseptic. Applying a 5% solution of tea tree oil and water helped to kill off bacteria and other microbes that could potentially infect the cut. (8) Other studies have found that tea tree oil is an antibacterial agent that can kill off methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of bacteria. These bacteria are often responsible for skin infections. (9) How to use tea tree oil to disinfect minor cuts: First, thoroughly clean the affected area with warm water and soap. Mix one or two drops of tea tree oil with a teaspoon of coconut oil or other carrier oil. Apply to your cut and cover with a bandage. Change the bandage daily, applying more tea tree oil disinfectant ointment each time. Tea Tree Oil Promotes Healthy Wound Healing Another use for tea tree oil is to apply some drops of tea tree oil to a wound dressing to help wounds heal quicker. Tea tree oil helps to overcome one of the obstacles of treating wounds successfully – microbial resistance to standard antibiotic treatments. Studies into the benefits of tea tree oil have found that tea tree oil is an effective remedy for treating wounds. Clinical trials have shown that tea tree oil can kill off strains of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Tea tree oil has proven efficacy against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains of bacteria. (10) One small study showed that adding tea tree oil to a wound dressing helps wounds heal quicker than traditional methods. (11) Using tea tree oil for wound healing: Put 2 or 3 drops on the dressing allow to soak into the dressing. Apply the dressing to the wound with the tea tree oil side against the damaged skin tissue. Add some drops of tea tree oil every time you change the dressing to help prevent infection. Learn about other natural remedies you can use to help wounds heal faster. Tea Tree Oil Is Useful for Psoriasis and Other Inflammatory Skin Conditions The anti-inflammatory properties of tea tree oil mean that it is useful for treating a number of skin conditions, including psoriasis. Research into the uses and benefits of tea tree oil has found that its terpinen-4-ol helps to reduce skin inflammation. Scientists found that this has a potential use in treating psoriasis symptoms such as inflamed red skin patches, scaling, and cracked dry skin. (12) The fact that tea tree oil is antibacterial also helps prevent secondary skin infections from developing. (12) Some evidence also points to the fact that skin treatments containing tea tree oil can help to treat contact dermatitis. In fact, tea tree oil was more effective than zinc oxide when treating eczema. Zinc oxide is a popular anti-eczema cream. (13) There are also other scientific studies showing that tea tree oil can help reduce skin inflammation that is due to allergic reactions. In the study, scientists used 100% tea tree oil on the inflamed skin to reduce swelling and redness. (14) You can also use tea tree oil for treating sunburn, rashes, burns, insect bites, and blisters. (15) Use tea tree oil for dermatitis and psoriasis: To help reduce skin inflammation, add 3 or 4 drops of tea tree oil to a tablespoon of extra virgin oil. Mix well and apply to your patches of inflamed skin 2 times a day to reduce redness, itchiness, dry skin, and swelling. You can use the same tea tree oil remedy to help treat other types of skin inflammation. Before using tea tree oil for treating skin inflammation, do a small patch test first as tea tree oil can cause skin irritation in some people. (16) Further reading: Find other natural treatments for eczema, or if you suffer from psoriasis try these natural remedies. Tea Tree Oil Treat Fungal Skin Infections Tea tree oil is also very useful to help treat infections such as ringworm, jock itch, and other types of fungal infections on the skin. Fungal skin infections are characterized by patches of red itchy skin around the genitals, in the armpits, or in between your toes. (17) The European Medicines Agency reports that melaleuca oil is an effective natural treatment for fungal infections. For example, tea tree oil is a good remedy to use for tinea cruris (jock itch). (18) You can also benefit from using tea tree oil if you have ringworm. Dermatophytes are a type of mold that results in ringworm infections. The journal Phytomedicine reported that a solution of 25% tea tree oil and sweet almond oil helped to reduce symptoms of ringworm. (19) Another study found that, in a 4-week period, tea tree oil helped to cure ringworm infections in over 60% of persons using the natural antifungal cream. (20) Use tea tree oil as an anti-fungal cream: Add 3-4 drops of tea tree oil to one tablespoon of virgin coconut oil or extra virgin olive oil (or other carrier oil) and apply to the affected skin areas twice a day until the fungal infection clears. Learn about other natural ingredients that you can use to rid yourself of itchy, fungal skin problems, including ringworm and jock itch. Tea Tree Oil is Useful for Treating Scabies and Mites Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by tiny mites that bury under your skin. The anti-parasitic and antibacterial properties of tea tree oil make it a great natural remedy to use for scabies. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene reports that tea tree oil helps kill off mites as well as to reduce itching, inflammation, and infection. Tea tree oil can even be used when conventional scabies treatments don’t work. (21) Some studies have shown that a 10% solution of tea tree oil can kill 100% of dust mites. Also, undiluted tea tree oil was effective at eliminating face mites. (21) How to use tea tree oil for killing mites: Mix 3 drops tea tree oil, 3 drops lavender oil, and 5 drops neem oil with one tablespoon of carrier oil such as virgin coconut oil. Apply the tea tree oil anti-parasitic remedy to your affected skin 2 times a day until the scabies infection has gone. Find out more about the anti-parasite activity of neem oil and how you can use it to treat all types of mite bites naturally. Tea Tree Oil is Antiviral and Can Help Cure Cold Sores (Fever Blisters) You can even use a drop or two of tea tree oil on symptoms of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The HSV-1 is responsible for painful cold sore outbreaks on your lips, under your nose, and inside your mouth. Researchers have found that the antiviral properties of tea tree oil can be used to eliminate herpes viruses. A 50% solution of tea tree oil was enough to help cure cold sores and prevent further outbreaks. (22) Practical way to use tea tree oil for fever blisters: Mix 3 drops of tea tree oil with a tablespoon of carrier oil. Apply at the first sign of a cold sore and use 3 or 4 times a day to prevent or get rid of your cold sore. Tea Tree Oil is Antifungal and Treats the Causes of Athlete’s Foot Another great use for tea tree oil is to eradicate the fungal infection that causes athlete’s foot. Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) causes itching, broken skin, and a burning sensation between your toes. The infection can spread to other parts of your feet and to other people. Research has shown that a 10% solution of tea tree oil is as effective as antifungal pharmaceuticals in eliminating athlete’s foot. (23) How to use tea tree oil for athlete’s foot: Put a few drops of sweet almond oil or other carrier oil on a cotton ball and add 2 drops of tea tree oil. Apply the antifungal tea tree remedy to relieve itching, burning, and inflammation between your toes. Use Tea Tree Oil to Combat Fungal Nail Infections Fungal infections in your feet can also cause dry, thick, and flaky nails that are systematic of a nail fungal infection. One of the many popular uses and benefits of pure tea tree oil is to cure fungal infections that attack the bed of your nail (onychomycosis). Scientific research has shown that tea tree oil can be just as effective as antifungal creams in clearing nail infections. One study found that undiluted tea tree oil was just as good at treating onychomycosis as clotrimazole (a popular antifungal treatment for nail fungus). After 6 months of treatment, 60% of patients in both groups showed significant signs of improvement. (24) How to use pure tea tree oil for fungal nail infections: Cut away as much of the damaged nail as possible. Using a cotton swab containing a few drops of undiluted tea tree oil, apply the oil to the infected nails. Continue applying twice a day until the nail infection is completely resolved. Further reading: Try these other natural treatments for toenail fungus. Tea Tree Oil Helps Get Rid of Dandruff and an Itchy Scalp If you are bothered by flaky bits of skin in your hair due to dandruff or a dry scalp, you can use some tea tree oil to the underlying cause of your symptoms. Dandruff and scalp itching are often the result of a fungal infection in your scalp. Dermatologists have found that applying a tea tree solution to your scalp regularly can help to treat dandruff. One study found that 40% of people using an antifungal shampoo with tea tree oil showed significant improvements. (25) Tea tree oil helped to soothe scalp itching, reduce scalp flaking, and improve the appearance of oily hair. (25) How to use tea tree oil for dandruff: Add 8-10 drops of tea tree oil for every 1 oz. (30 ml) of shampoo. Use as normal shampoo but leave the shampoo for 5 minutes in your hair before rinsing out to make sure and kill off fungal strains on your scalp Tea Tree Oil to Eliminate Head Lice In my article about effective home remedies for lice I’ve mentioned tea tree oil as one of the effective natural ingredients to eliminate head lice. A study published in the journal BioMed Central Dermatology found that a mixture of tea tree oil and lavender oil killed 97% of lice when applied 3 times a week and was more effective than pyrethrins-based products. (30) Coconut oil has also been shown to be effective in treating lice. (31) To use tea tree oil to treat lice, you should mix 15 drops of tea tree oil and 5 drops of lavender oil with 2 oz. of carrier oil such as coconut oil. Apply to the scalp and hair, avoiding the face and eyes. Put the hair in a shower cap and then wrap with a towel and leave for an hour. Comb through all the hair with a nit comb and wash the hair to remove all the oil. Repeat this 3 times a week. Remember that it is always important to use a lice comb to remove all the lice. You can also eliminate head lice using this simple home remedy. Tea Tree Oil for Healthy Hair There have been some claims that tea tree oil can aid hair growth. Although there haven’t been any studies which conclusively prove that tea tree oil can help hair regrow, there is an evidence from research to show that it promotes the growth of healthy hair. For example, some hair loss can be the result of hair follicles becoming clogged or inflamed or because other scalp inflammation. An interesting study from 2013 into tea tree oil and hair loss showed that it can help traditional hair re-growth remedies work more effectively. In the study, tea tree oil was mixed with minoxidil, which is a drug used to promote hair regrowth, and an anti-inflammatory drug called diclofenac. It was found that the combination of tea tree oil, diclofenac, and minoxidil was far more effective than just minoxidil alone. (31) Find out more interesting ways you can use tea tree oil as a natural hair conditioner and in hair masks in my article “Tea Tree Oil for Hair and Scalp – The Complete Guide“. Tea Tree Oil is Antibacterial and You Can Use it as a Natural Deodorant Due to its powerful antibacterial properties, tea tree oil can also be used as a natural and safe deodorant to kill off armpit odor. Find out how to incorporate tea tree oil with other natural ingredients to create your own underarm deodorant. Tea Tree Oil Can Kill Off Vaginal Yeast Infections The powerful antifungal properties of Melaleuca alternifolia mean that tea tree oil is excellent to use for genital yeast infections. Research published in 2015 found that tea tree oil can help to eliminate many strains of Candida albicans. The study found that tea tree oil’s antifungal compound terpinen-4-ol boosted the effectiveness of conventional candidiasis treatments such as fluconazole. (26) Another study found that tea tree oil vaginal suppositories helped to kill off 20 strains of Candida species that are common in vaginal yeast infections. (27) How to use tea tree oil for candidiasis: Add 2 or 3 drops of tea tree oil to a tablespoon of warmed coconut oil (so that it is in liquid form) and mix well. Soak a tampon in the tea tree oil remedy and insert into your vagina for 2 hours to help kill off the Candida infection naturally. Learn how to spot signs if you have a candida infection and find out other effective home remedies for candidiasis. Tea Tree Oil Inhalation for Sinusitis, Colds and Coughs The anti-inflammatory effect of tea tree oil can help to reduce swelling, irritation, and mucus in your sinuses. Tea tree oil also has natural antiseptic properties that can also kill off germs that cause your sinuses to become inflamed and swollen. The journal Clinical Microbiology Reviews reported that tea tree oil is a natural remedy for many inflammatory conditions caused by infections. Compounds in tea tree oil have been used to treat coughs and colds. The review stated that vaporized tea tree oil can kill off various Strep. strains of bacteria when inhaled. (32). Tea tree oil can be added to most home remedies for sinusitis to boost the antimicrobial effect of other essential oils. To use steam inhalation for sinus relief and get rid of congestion, this is what you can do: Fill a bowl with hot water and add 5 drops of eucalyptus oil, 5 drops of tea tree oil, and 5 drops of any other essential oil from the list of the top 10 essential oils for sinus infections such as peppermint oil, rosemary oil or oregano oil. Put your head over the bowl, cover it with a towel and breathe deeply. Continue breathing deeply for 10 – 15 minutes to help relieve sinus congestion. Where to Buy Tea Tree Oil To get the many benefits of using tea tree oil, it is important to choose the best quality product. You should always ensure that any tea tree oil you use is 100% pure tea tree essential oil. This means that it hasn’t been diluted with less-inferior oils. Make sure that the only ingredient listed is Melaleuca alternifolia. It also always best to purchase organic tea tree oil to guarantee that you get a high-quality product without any risk of pesticides or other toxins. You can buy tea tree oil in many supermarkets, pharmacies, health stores or online. Side Effects and Precautions of Using Tea Tree Oil Tea tree oil is used by many people and is well tolerated. Doctors from the Mayo Clinic reports that using tea tree oil topically is generally safe and good for treating skin infections. (28) However, you should never ingest tea tree oil as it is toxic when swallowed. Before applying tea tree oil to your skin, you should dilute it with a carrier oil to prevent skin irritation. If your skin shows any kind of allergic reaction to tea tree oil such as irritation, a rash, or burning, you should avoid using it or dilute it with more carrier oil. If you are interested to learn more about essential oils you can find useful information in my e-book Magical Aromatherapy. This e-book will help you to discover the power of essential oils and the most effective ways to use them. Other Home Uses for Tea Tree Oil Air Freshener Add a few drops to your diffuser and diffuse throughout the day, or soak cotton balls in tea tree oil and keep them stored in an open container to freshen the air. You can also create tea tree oil spray and spray around the house. Just fill an 8oz spray bottle with 15-20 drops of essential oils such as tea tree, lavender, lemon, rosemary or eucalyptus. Shake well and mist around your home. Find more ways to make your home smell fantastic with essential oils in this article. Carpet cleaning You can put a few drops of tea tree oil on the vacuum cleaner bag or filter for extra cleaning power and for additional great scent. Flea collar for dogs Make a flea collar by putting a few drops of diluted tea tree oil on the dog’s collar on a weekly basis. There are several caution notes you must be aware of: Never use essential oils on cats. If you decide to put tea tree oil on your dog’s collar, always use lower concentration oil (1% or less) and always dilute it with a carrier oil. Use very small amount on the collar, and don’t use it directly on the skin. Find here more ways to get rid of fleas from your home, garden and pets. Household Cleaning Tea tree oil can be added to your own homemade cleaners to get rid of germs and to sanitize surfaces. You can make a tea tree cleaner by mixing two teaspoons of tea tree oil with two cups of water in a spray bottle. Shake vigorously to mix it up and use for household cleaning. This solution works especially well in bathrooms and toilets. Tea tree oil is just one effective alternative to bleach to help disinfect surfaces in your home. Insect Repellent Add 15 drops of tea tree oil to 1/2 cup of water, shake well and spray over the body as an insect repellent. Mildew and Mold Remover Combine two teaspoons of tea tree oil with two cups of water to create an all-purpose cleaner to treat mold and mildew. Shake bottle well before use. Spray on the affected surface and let it dry. Don’t rinse. Pest Control Household bugs, such as ants and spiders don’t like tea tree oil, so putting several drops or spraying tea tree oil spray at the doorway can act as a deterrent. Combine water and oil to create a solution which can be used to clean cupboards and keep pests away. Related articles: How to Use Tea Tree Oil for Acne: The Ultimate Guide Tea Tree Oil for Hair and Scalp – The Complete Guide The Best 17 Essential Oils for Acne (Backed by Scientific Research)

Saturday, October 20, 2018

CAMLINK ENGAGE DANS LE CADRE DE LA MISE EN ŒUVRE DES ISDC AU CAMEROUN

Par calinknews
Cameroon Link a démarré les activités dans le cadre du projet ISDC/NFM2. Elle est a sa quatrième année avec les communautes rurale du district de santé d'ABO après avoir passe trois ans dans le district de sante de Dibombari, dans la region du Littoral du Cameroun.Avec l'appui d'IRESCO? CAMEROON lINK FAIT ACTIVITES SUR L4INFORMATION? EDUCATION ET COMMUNICATION DANS LE DISTRICT DE SANTE D'ABO sur la prévention du paludisme, la tuberculose et les VIH/sida.La nouvelle phase des activites de Cameroon Link avec le le Groupe Technique Régionale du SIDA dans le Littoral. Elle est engagé dans la dispensation des anti-rétroviraux en milieu commuataire avec l'appui de l’Hôpital Général de Douala. Dans le cadre du Nouveau Model de Financement (NMF) du Fonds Mondial, le Cameroun bénéficie d’une subvention portant sur les trois maladies à savoir le VIH, la Tuberculose et le Paludisme. Cette subvention vient à la suite de l’évaluation de la subvention précédente qui a été implémentée avec succès au Cameroun entre Janvier 2015 et Décembre 2017. Cette subvention qui s’inscrit dans la continuation des stratégies est mise en œuvre par le MINSANTE qui est le récipiendaire principal (PR) et le Groupement Plan-MCCAM-IRESCO en qualité de sous récipiendaire (SR). Le besoin d’intervenants communautaires est exprimé par les programmes du MINSANTE pour augmenter la demande de service au sein des communautés afin que 80% de la population adopte des pratiques favorables à la promotion des comportements sains, à la prévention et à la prise en charge intégrée des maladies (Paludisme, Infections Respiratoires Aigües, Diarrhées, Tuberculose, VIH/SIDA, Malnutrition, Onchocercose, maladies évitables par la vaccination …) au niveau communautaire. Dans la région du Littoral, l’activité communautaire sera mise en œuvre prioritairement dans 07 districts de santé, 56 Aires de santé par plusieurs acteurs parmi lesquels on peut citer 07 Organisation de la Société Civile de District (OSCD) et 430 Agents de Santé Communautaire (ASC).. La stratégie communautaire est une traduction opérationnelle de la politique des interventions sous directives communautaires (ISDC) élaborée par la Direction de l’Organisation des Soins et de la Technologie Sanitaire (DOSTS) en 2012. Ce processus a conduit à l’élaboration de la stratégie intégrée de mise en œuvre des activités sous directives communautaires, en juillet 2016. Les principaux acteurs de mise en œuvre de cette stratégie que sont les ASC ont été formé entre Décembre 2016 et Janvier 2017. A la suite de ces formations les ASC ont reçu les outils, matériels et intrants pour la mise en œuvre de ces activités communautaires. La mise en œuvre des activités communautaires est continu depuis le début de 2017, cependant il y a eu des moments de faible suivi des ASC essentiellement pendant le processus de sélection du SR pour la deuxième phase du NFM. A la suite des différentes revues et évaluations des activités communautaires, certains goulots d’étranglement qui empêchaient la mise en œuvre optimale des activités ont été identifiés parmi lesquels le faible suivi des ASC. C’est ainsi que dans le cadre de la continuation du programme pour la période 2018-2020, la supervision des ASC par les OSCD sera accentuée. Cette fiche technique définit la stratégie et les livrables attendus au terme de cette activité de supervision qui sera conduite dans les aires de santé du district de santé de Melong par l’équipe de l’OSCD CAMLINK du DS d’Abo pour le compte du trimestre Avril-Mai-Juin 2018.
II. Objectifs A. Objectif général : Apporter un appui aux acteurs communautaires (ASC, COSA, leaders communautaires, chefs d’aires de santé…) pour améliorer la qualité de la mise en œuvre des ISDC dans les communautés. B. Objectif spécifique  Faire le suivi de la mise en œuvre des recommandations de la dernière supervision ;  Distribution du matériel  S’assurer que les acteurs principaux des activités communautaires (ASC & chefs d’aire) ont une bonne compréhension de leur cahier de charge ;  S’assurer que le protocole de prise en charge des maladies au niveau communautaire est respecté par les ASC ;  Vérifier la disponibilité et la conservation des intrants (médicaments, TDR, boite à image, registre…) par les ASC;  Assister l’ASC dans le remplissage des registres ;  S’assurer de la qualité des activités menées par les ASC (VAD, causeries éducatives, pratique des TDR et leur interprétation….) ;  Revoir la qualité et validité les données et rapports produits par les ASC ;  Aider à la résolution des conflits en relation avec les ISDC identifiés au sein de la communauté. III. Résultats attendus  Les ASC et les chefs d’aire ont une meilleure compréhension des ISDC et maitrisent leur cahier de charge ;  Le protocole de prise en charge des maladies au niveau communautaire est respecté par les ASC ;  l’approvisionnement des ASC en intrants et leurs utilisation sont améliorés ;  Les registres des ASC sont mieux remplis ;  La qualité des activités menées par les ASC est améliorée ;  Les données collectées par les ASC sont validées et les rapports produits cohérents et facilement exploitables ;  Les conflits identifiés en communauté en relation avec les ISDC sont résolus. IV. Méthodologies 1. Avant la supervision Avant la supervision le coordonnateur de l’OSCD doit informer les personnes à rencontrer pendant sa supervision de la date de visite et les principales articulations de la supervision. Le superviseur doit s’assurer de la disponibilité des grilles de supervision et du formulaire à signer par les personnes rencontrées lors de la descente sur le terrain. Le coordonnateur élabore les TDR de sa supervision et les transmets au RFS pour validation. 2. Pendant la supervision La séance de travail proprement dite débutera par une brève présentation des TDR de supervision. Ensuite le superviseur devra rappeler les grandes lignes des ISDC et surtout le cahier de charge des ASC. La suite de la supervision portera sur l’administration de la grille de supervision de l’ASC avec feedback immédiat et la résolution des conflits identifiés au niveau communautaire. C’est pendant cette étape que les problèmes spécifiques à chaque ASC sont identifiés et les solutions sont recherchées de manière participative. Chaque OSCD supervise trois ASC par jour de supervision ; ainsi le nombre total de jours de supervision par trimestre est le quotient du nombre d’ASC par trois. 3. Après la supervision Au terme de la supervision le superviseur doit rédiger un rapport de supervision qu’il transmettra au niveau régional du SR (RFS) pour approbation. Ce rapport intègre les trouvailles de la supervision et en annexe la liste de personnes rencontrées. La justification des frais de subsistance de l’OSCD pendant la supervision des ASC se fait par la soumission des TDR approuvés, du rapport de supervision approuvé, de la liste des personnes rencontrées et de l’ordre de mission dument signé et présentant l’itinéraire de supervision. 4. Matériel à emporter sur le terrain par le superviseur • L’ordre de mission • La grille de supervision de l’ASC (une grille par ASC à superviser) • La liste des personnes à rencontrer (noms, contact téléphonique, localisation…) • La copie des précédents rapports de chaque ASC à rencontrer • La cartographie des ASC à compléter • Le stylo, crayon, gomme, chemises plastique… • La fiche de suivi des indicateurs au niveau de l’ASC • Les fiches de validation de la prime (fixe et variable) des ASC pour la période de mise en œuvre concernée (Avril à juin 2018) et pour chaque aire de santé. 5. Matériel à ramener du terrain par le superviseur • Les Ordre de mission signé • Les grilles de supervision remplis et signées par le superviseur et les supervisés • La fiche des personnes rencontrées (noms, résidence, qualité/fonction, téléphone…) • La cartographie complète des ASC • Les rapports des ASC pour la période concernée (visés par le chef de l’aire) • La fiche de synthèse des activités au niveau de l’aire de santé (la quantité dépend du nombre d’aire de santé du district) • Les notes de remplacement de tous les ASC n’ayant pas suivi la formation au même moment que les autres • La fiche renseignant sur le coût réel du transport de chaque ASC de sa résidence au district de santé • La fiche de suivi des indicateurs au niveau de l’ASC • Les fiches de validation de la prime (fixe et variable) des ASC signées par les chefs d’aires pour la période de mise en œuvre concernée (Avril à juin 2018) et pour chaque aire de santé • Le rapport de supervision selon le canevas établi.
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Saturday, October 6, 2018

CNLS officials visits Cameroon Link

By James Achanyi-Fontem, camlinknews
A delegation of three officials of the Littoral Technical Group visited the office of Cameroon Link on the 2nd October 2018 to evaluate the site for take off of dispensation of anti-retroviral drug in the community. The visit was a follow up of the protocol convention signed between the Technical Group of CNLS in the Littoral and Cameroon Link on 16 July 2018. Dr. YONGUI NTAMACK, Regional Coordinator, endorsed the protocol agreement on behalf of CNLS/GTR-Lt and James ACHANYI-FONTEM, President of Cameroon Link signed on behalf of the Civil Society Organisation. This protocol falls within the frame work of a World Bank subvention for the fight against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in Cameroon. The dispensation of anti-retroviral drugs within the community by a non-medical structure by a staff living within the community is to facilitate access to treatment by patients and the Cameroon Link is now charged with undertaking the following activities: - Explaining the the population what dispensation fo anti-retroviral therapies with the community entails, who can benefit i from the service, the advantages of dispensation of anti-retroviral drugs within the community, in which case should the patient return to the health facility, what are the services to be offered by Cameroon Link, counseling and organization of educative talks with the community. - In effect any person that has been diagnosed can benefit from the services at Cameroon Link Support groups of persons living with HIV, well structured community therapy groups constituted within the community are eligible. - These groups will benefit from the renewal of their prescription, biological follow-up, coaching on poor hygienic and sanitation. - HIV patients will benefit from cordial attention, availibity of Cameroon Link staff, confidentiality and the reduction of delays for reception of and answers to the queries of patients.

GENERALITIES ON HIV

By James Achanyi-Fontem, camlinknews
As we dispense anti-retroviral drugs, we need to eucate the population on HIV prevention. This article give a global view of the generalities of HIV. HIV is a Sexually Transmitted Infection(STI) :. This is any disease contracted through unprotected sex. HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus attacks the body's immune system, weakens it, and exposes it to opportunistic infections. This virus is responsible for AIDS. There are 2 types of viruses: Type 1, which is the most widespread, the most contagious, the most virulent; and type 2, which is less widespread, less virulent and rare in Central Africa. A person can have both types of viruses. AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This is the advanced stage of the disease. It is at this stage that the PLHIV has opportunistic infections. PLHIV: Person Living with HIV .Opportunistic infection: It is a disease that takes advantage of the weakness of the human body's immune system to install itself. It can be an infection (Cryptococcus’s, tuberculosis ...) or cancer (Kaposi ...). Viral load (VL): It is the amount of virus per millilitre of blood present in the body and determining the degree of infectivity. A person who has an undetectable viral load has a very low risk of transmitting HIV. CD4 lymphocyte: This is a type of white blood cell that helps the body to fight against diseases. It is this defence cell that HIV primarily attacks and destroys. Accidental Exposure Biological Fluids (AEBF) : It is any accidental contact of a mucosa or damaged skin with body fluids (blood, sperm, vaginal secretions, etc. ...) or tissues likely to be infected. Antiretroviral treatment (ART): Any drug capable of preventing the proliferation of HIV. It can be used for preventive purposes (prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)) or curative (HIV infected persons). EPIDEMIOLOGY  Situation in the world in 2016: - 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide. - 17.1 million people are not aware they were HIV carriers. - 2 million people were newly infected with HIV, that is 5600 new infections per day, a third of which are young people between 15 and 24 years old. - 15.8 million people with HIV had access to antiretroviral therapy. However, 22 million still do not have access to ARVs.Situation in Cameroon - The Republic of Cameroon has a generalized HIV epidemic with an estimated prevalence of 4.3% in the general population (15-49 years) in 2011. - This epidemic affects more women (5.6% in women against 2.9% in men) and a peak in the 35-39 years (8.1%). It is more urban (4.8%) than rural (3.8%) with a great disparity between regions ranging from 1.2% in the Far North region to 7.2% in the South region. In the two big cities Yaounde and Douala, it is respectively 6.3% and 4.6%1. Prevalence among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years is 1.2% (2.2% for girls and 0.4% for boys). Situation in Cameroon - The Republic of Cameroon has a generalized HIV epidemic with an estimated prevalence of 4.3% in the general population (15-49 years) in 2011. - This epidemic affects more women (5.6% in women against 2.9% in men) and a peak in the 35-39 years (8.1%). It is more urban (4.8%) than rural (3.8%) with a great disparity between regions ranging from 1.2% in the Far North region to 7.2% in the South region. In the two big cities Yaounde and Douala, it is respectively 6.3% and 4.6%1. Prevalence among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years is 1.2% (2.2% for girls and 0.4% for boys). In Cameroon PLHIV were estimated at 612,445 in 20142. According to the 2014 UNAIDS report, 45,000 (39,000 - 55,000) new HIV infections occurred in 2013, including 9,500 in children below 15 years of age. The rate of MTCT was estimated at 25% in 2013, compared to 33% in 2009. - The epidemic affects the key populations more, notably sex workers (SW) with 36.7% prevalence in 2014 and a national prevalence of 24% among men having sex with men (MSM) , with a peak of 44% prevalence for MSM in Yaounde and Douala in 2014. - 205382 patients were on ART as at late December 2016 (ARV coverage of 37%). TRANSMISSION MODES OF HIV AND MEANS OF PREVENTION . Localization of the virus in the body: The virus is found in all fluids of the body, but not all are contaminating. HIV is not spread through saliva and sweat. . Localization of the virus in the body: The virus is found in all fluids of the body, but not all are contaminating. HIV is not spread through saliva and sweat.There are three (3) modes of HIV transmission : • There are three (3) modes of HIV transmission : Sexual route, Blood transfusion and vertical transmission SEXUAL ROUTE Contamination by genital secretions (presence of HIV in sperm and vaginal secretions) : • From man to woman • From woman to man • From Man to Man (MSM) Risk factors are : • Risky sexual practices (Behaviour, type of sexual acts, etc.) • Absence of the use or misuse of condoms • Presence of ulcerative STIs in any of the partners UNSAFE BLOOD Contamination by blood or blood derivatives through: • Direct contact with infected blood or blood derivative (transfusion, AEBFs, etc.) • Object stained with infected blood (syringes of drug addicts, acupuncture needles, tattoo needles etc.) Risk factors - Manipulation (use) of contaminated soiled objects without protection - Accidental direct contact with blood or blood derivatives - Untested blood transfusion VERTICAL TRANSMISSION  It is the transmission of HIV from a mother to her child during: • Pregnancy, • Childbirth • Breastfeeding RISK FACTORS - STI in the mother - Ignorance of the status of the mother - Absence of ANC - Nutritional factors (breastfeeding) - Practices during childbirth - Placental pathologies NON-TRANSMISSION ROUTES Saliva, urine, tears etc. are non-contaminating probably due to the low virus concentration in these milieus or the presence of neutralizing factors. MEANS OF PREVENTION Purpose of prevention: Avoid contamination Application of the AGC rule of safer sex:  A: Abstinence B: Good fidelity C: Condom  Voluntary testing  Application of infection prevention standards and protocols (health workers and individuals) Early Management of Blood Exposure Accidents (BEAs)  Diagnosis and treatment of STIs  Blood transfusion with tested blood  Prevention of mother-to-ch

Dispensation of anti-retroviral by Community Based Organisations

By James Achanyi-Fontem, camlinknews
Cameroon Link has been engaged as one of the civil society organisations in Cameroon to dispense anti retroviral drugs to HIV carriers. The was a follow up of the training received in Mbalmayo on the subject. During the training the training T the first module was on the generalities of HIV/AIDs and the concept of logistic. Paticipans defined what HIV means, the different types of drugs used to fight the virus and what a treatment protocole means. A video was projected to show how the virus affects the body and its consequencies. It was noted that the treatment with the anti-retroviral only reduces the effect of the virus in the body and does not eliminate it. It clears the viral load in the blood, especially when it is non-detectable. The anti-retroviral re-establishes and preserve the immunological functions, which is the CD4 in the blood stream. This helps to improve the well-being of the patient and reduces mortality. The standard anti-retroviral protocol is the mono or bi-therapy tablets for treatment and these results to rapid recovery by increasing resistance to the multiplication of the effects of the virus in the body. The treatment is composed of the following: INTI + 1 INNTI :or any of the four combinations associated Zidovudine + Lamivudine+ Efavirenz Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Névirapine Ténofovir + Lamivudine + Efavirenz Ténofovir + Lamivudine + Névirapine The above drugs have principal side effects which need to be taken into consideration: ZIDOVUDINE (AZT) may lead to severeanemia Anémie, neutropénie, nausées, vomissements, myalgie, fatigue, insomnie, hyper pigmentation (ongles, langue), gynécomastie.In this case it is advised to contrôl NFS for research of the cause ofanémia and/orneutropénie. LAMIVUDINE (3TC) may lead to Céphalées/insomnie, diarrhée, with some rare cases of neuropathiepériphérique. In this case, toleration is generally recommended. Using TENOFOVIR (TDF) may lead to Diarrhées, nausées, flatulences, tubulopathieproximale, néphrotoxicitéSD de Fanconi and it is advised to evalulate the patient ; renal function,,andadapte the posology with créatinine< 50ml/mn. NEVIRAPINE (NVP) will lead to rashes cutané that could evaluate towards a syndrome of Stevens-Johnson et Lyell. reactions very frequent in women with CD4totaling>250 cell/mm3 and>400 cell/mm3 in men.With this, the following effects have been recorded and it is advised to always administer half the dose in the first six months. In case of effects, within 7 days,return patient to clinic of observation of CD4 count. Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaacd4 count isgenerally 250 for women and 400 for men. EFAVIRENZ (EFV) will show the following effects: T neuropsychiquesroubles,dowsiness, insomnie, somnolence, hallucination, possible toxicity cutanée et hépatique. In this case, take medicine to reduce effects in pregnant women and patient suffering fromantécédentspsychiatriquesand convulsions. When in difficulties, contact your care-giver and doctor.